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History of The Game Of Basketball Including The NBA and the NCAAHistory Of Basketball. Beginning in Springfield: Dr.
James Naismith With many sports, it’s hard to trace an exact origin; ball games are fairly universal to cultures around the globe, and finding a specific inventor can be difficult to impossible. Basketball, on the other hand, does not have that same problem. The game millions watch today had its definite beginnings in the small town of Springfield, Massachusetts, in the mind of Dr. James Naismith. Naismith was a 3. YMCA training school, and, in 1.
Naismith went through indoor versions of soccer, lacrosse and football, and they all failed (with the irony being all three of those sports would eventually have indoor versions), primarily because each try caused damage, particularly to windows. Naismith set out to create a game with less violence, one that was less a contest of strength and more a contest of skill. Late at night on the final before the final day of the two weeks he was given, he created a set of 1. Basket Ball. He established many things still in use today, including the concept of “travelling,” “goaltending,” fouls, and even the rule that a ball must be thrown in- bounds within five seconds. He set up peach baskets attached to both ends of a gymnasium balcony, and used a soccer ball (using an “Association foot ball” was even part of his original rules).
The name “Basket Ball” came from a student who first learned the game. Growth Through YMCA Basketball’s spread was helped a great deal by the YMCA itself; students who learned the game from Naismith took it across the country and even the world on Christian missions. Naismith himself taught the game in Springfield, in Denver at the YMCA there, and then at the University of Kansas, where he taught the game (as a teacher of physical education) from 1. While Naismith’s rules do not cover everything about the modern game, many aspects were picked up almost instantly; one of the key rules (the 3rd) said that no player could run with the ball, but did not introduce the concept of dribbling, fundamental to today’s game.
However, many of his players soon figured out that dribbling wasn’t against Naismith’s rules, and adopted it. Naismith himself liked the invention, and dribbling was made part of the official rules in 1. Wooden backboards were added in 1. Basketball was also one of the first sports to be played by women as well as men; only 1.
Smith College in 1. The Sport Grows: College Basketball Early 1. The spread of basketball was made possible primarily through two avenues; first, as mentioned, the YMCA gave the game an outlet that was not only nationwide, but worldwide, in addition to spreading it among young people, helping it grow through time. The second avenue was college; college basketball was far more widespread and popular than any early professional leagues.
That is not to say, however, that the early professional leagues did not matter; they were simply poorly organized. The first pro basketball league, the National Basketball League, formed in 1. From that point on, for a period of about 4. U. S. was a series of loosely organized leagues primarily in the northeast. Many of the professional teams during this period were “barnstormers,” pro teams that travelled to play local teams for money. None of the teams in existence today come from those old leagues, though one team, the Original Celtics from New York, helped inspire the naming of the Boston Celtics, while the Harlem Globetrotters, just an exhibition team (not in a professional league) came into existence in 1. Still, while the teams did not last, some of the changes they brought did.
In 1. 90. 8, the rule of a player being ejected from a game after five fouls was introduced (five fouls is still the standard in college basketball, while the pro game now uses six). In 1. 93. 8, they eliminated a jump ball at center court after each basket (speeding up the game and creating higher scores). The Original Celtics, and in particular one of their players, Nat Holman, brought passing to a new level in the 1.
Marques Haynes of the Globetrotters. International Popularity Early 1. Basketball’s domestic growth was nearly equaled by its international growth. The Christian missions that brought the game around the world helped make basketball one of the world’s first truly global games; the first international basketball tournament was the Inter- Allied Games, played between the U. S., France and Italy in Paris in 1. FIBA, the Fédération Internationale de Basketball, the governing body of the sport internationally, was formed in Geneva, Switzerland in 1.
National Basketball Association, the game’s governing body in the U. S. Just four years later, basketball became an Olympic sport, only furthering its worldwide popularity (though its first exposure in the Olympics came even earlier, in 1. Interestingly, the U.
S. was not one of the original members of FIBA; it joined two years later, in 1. The founding eight countries were Argentina, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Romania and Switzerland. College Championships: Harvard, Yale, Cornell and Princeton While the sport grew internationally and the professional game was stalled by a distinct lack of organization, the college game showed no signs of slowing down. Early in the game’s history, colleges began to play games against each other, with some of the earliest college leagues formed by Ivy League schools like Harvard, Yale, Cornell and Princeton. Some of today’s basketball staples, including the layup, the one- hand shot and the dunk, were created by college players. National Invitational Tournament, or NIT In 1. New York wanted to introduce the concept of a national college basketball champion.
They brought six teams to play at Madison Square Garden in the National Invitational Tournament, or NIT. Bradley, Colorado, Long Island, New York University, Oklahoma A& M and Temple competed for the first NIT title, with Temple besting Colorado 6. The NIT would grow over time, eventually becoming a tournament of 4. NCAA tournament. National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA The success of the NIT led the National Collegiate Athletic Association to form its own basketball championship tournament only a year later. In 1. 93. 9, the first NCAA basketball championship tourney was played between Brown, Ohio State, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah State, Villanova and Wake Forest, with Oregon beating Ohio State for the title, 4. Like the NIT, the NCAA tournament would grow over time, most recently expanding to 6.
An interesting side note: teams used to be allowed to play in both the NIT and the NCAA tournament; in 1. CCNY Beavers beat the Bradley Braves in both the NIT and NCAA title games, becoming the only team ever to win both in a single season.) Professional Basketball Comes Together: Early Pro Leagues In 1. National Basketball League (NBL) was created by three corporations: General Electric, Firestone and Goodyear. This was not to be confused with any of the previous five incarnations of the National Basketball League (apparently, that particular title was not very lucky). Most of the teams in the league played in the Midwest, and the league remained in existence for over ten years. In 1. 94. 6, the Basketball Association of America (BAA) was formed, with 1.
Boston Garden, Chicago Stadium and Madison Square Garden (with almost all the teams playing in venues that also hosted hockey). Though the NBL boasted more talent, the BAA was seen as more successful, and in 1. NBL’s best teams - Fort Wayne, Rochester, Indianapolis and Minneapolis – moved to the BAA. A year later, the NBL folded, and the remaining teams jumped to the BAA, forming the National Basketball Association. National Basketball Association NBA The new league’s early success was helped by what was arguably professional basketball’s first superstar, George Mikan. The 6’1. 0’’ Mikan, out of De.
Paul University, was a giant on the court – at the time, being 6’1. Mikan averaged 2. Minneapolis Lakers to the first NBA title over the Syracuse Nationals. Mikan was not the most exciting player to watch, but he dominated the game, leading the league in points, rebounds and shots, his team winning the title 7 straight years (dating back to the NBL and BAA). The NBA began to change its rules to mitigate the Mikan factor, widening the three- second lane, an area in the center of the court by the basket where a player cannot stand for more than three seconds before being whistled for a violation. By removing Mikan from under the basket, it allowed teams to score more easily against him.
Breaking the Color Barrier: Early Players College Teams Black basketball players were nothing new. African- Americans dotted the college basketball landscape – George Gregory Jr. All- American basketball player at Columbia University in 1. William Garrett broke the color barrier of major college basketball programs by becoming the first black player in the Big Ten Conference when he joined the Indiana Hoosiers in 1.
Clarence Walker became the first black player to play in a national college basketball championship tournament when he stepped on the court for Indiana State University at the National Association for Intercollegiate Basketball (NAIB) tournament. Teams like the Globetrotters and the New York Rens (for Renaissance, a barnstorming team from the 1. But black basketball players had yet to make their way into any professional basketball league when 1. Chuck Cooper First NBA Player Chuck Cooper was drafted by the Boston Celtics in 1. NBA. Two other black players joined him that same year; Nat Clifton actually became the first African- America to sign an NBA contract when New York signed him away from the Globetrotters for $2. Earl Lloyd, playing for Washington, became the first black player to play in an NBA game, as his team was scheduled to begin the season before Clifton or Cooper’s teams.
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